Category Archives: Solar Science

Videos: NASA Parker Solar Probe set for early morning launch from the Cape on Aug.11

NASA’s Parker Solar Probe is ready for its launch early Saturday morning. NASA’s Parker Solar Probe is About to Lift Off | NASA

At [ 3:33 a.m. EDT  (0733 GMT) ] on Aug. 11, while most of the U.S. is asleep, NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida will be abuzz with excitement. At that moment, NASA’s Parker Solar Probe, the agency’s historic mission to touch the Sun, will have its first opportunity to lift off.

Launching from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, Parker Solar Probe will make its journey all the way to the Sun’s atmosphere, or corona — closer to the Sun than any spacecraft in history.

The spacecraft will ride the massive United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket, which is powered by liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. United Launch Alliance to Launch NASA’s Parker Solar Probe – ULA.

The liftoff of a Delta IV is always fun to watch. A sheet of flame will surround the vehicle just at liftoff caused by the burn off of hydrogen gas that’s emitted from the engines before they ignite.

Here is a new video about the mission:

Here’s the orbit that the probe will follow to bring it into the Sun’s atmosphere or corona:

Parker uses a highly elliptical orbit with Venus gravity assists to get closer to the Sun. Credits: NASA/JPL/WISPR Team

A video about the Sun’s corona, which is actually hotter than the surface of the Sun, a mystery the Parker probe will investigate: The Curious Case of the Sun’s Hot Corona | NASA

More videos about the Parker mission: GMS: Parker Solar Probe Science Briefing – Visual Resources

Some interesting items about the mission: Parker Solar Probe preview: 10 hot facts about NASA’s cool mission to the Sun | The Planetary Society



Videos: Parker Solar Probe set to launch on mission to study the Sun up close

On August 4th, United Launch Alliance (ULA) aims to launch a big Delta IV Heavy rocket from Cape Canaveral to send NASA’s Parker Solar Probe into an orbit that will bring it far closer to our home star than any previous spacecraft has dared go. (Perhaps your name is aboard the probe.) A cutting-edge heat shield enables the probe to fly directly through the corona, which is the extremely hot ionized plasma that surrounds the Sun.

Here is a new NASA video about the mission:

More about the mission at Parker Solar Probe: Humanity’s First Visit to a Star | NASA:

In order to unlock the mysteries of the Sun’s atmosphere, Parker Solar Probe will use Venus’ gravity during seven flybys over nearly seven years to gradually bring its orbit closer to the Sun. The spacecraft will fly through the Sun’s atmosphere as close as 3.8 million miles to our star’s surface, well within the orbit of Mercury and more than seven times closer than any spacecraft has come before. (Earth’s average distance to the Sun is 93 million miles.)

Flying into the outermost part of the Sun’s atmosphere, known as the corona, for the first time, Parker Solar Probe will employ a combination of in situ measurements and imaging to revolutionize our understanding of the corona and expand our knowledge of the origin and evolution of the solar wind. It will also make critical contributions to our ability to forecast changes in Earth’s space environment that affect life and technology on Earth.

A simulation of the orbit that will bring the probe closer and closer to the sub at perigee:



Send your name to the Sun on the Parker Solar Probe

NASA’s Parker Solar Probe mission offers you the opportunity to launch your name this summer on a spaceship heading for the sun :

Public Invited to Come Aboard NASA’s First Mission to Touch the Sun

Want to get the hottest ticket this summer without standing in line?

NASA is inviting people around the world to submit their names online to be placed on a microchip aboard NASA’s historic Parker Solar Probe mission launching in summer 2018. The mission will travel through the Sun’s atmosphere, facing brutal heat and radiation conditions — and your name will go along for the ride.

“This probe will journey to a region humanity has never explored before,” said Thomas Zurbuchen, the associate administrator for the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “This mission will answer questions scientists have sought to uncover for more than six decades.”

Understanding the Sun has always been a top priority for space scientists. Studying how the Sun affects space and the space environment of planets is the field known as heliophysics. The field is not only vital to understanding Earth’s most important and life-sustaining star, it supports exploration in the solar system and beyond.

Submissions will be accepted until April 27, 2018. Learn more and add your name to the mission here: 

Star Trek’s William Shatner, on behalf of NASA, invites you to send your name where it’s never gone before: the Sun, by way of NASA’s Parker Solar Probe. Credits: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center/Rich Melnick

The spacecraft, about the size of a small car, will travel directly into the Sun’s atmosphere about 4 million miles from the star’s surface. The primary science goals for the mission are to trace how energy and heat move through the solar corona and to explore what accelerates the solar wind as well as solar energetic particles. The mission will revolutionize our understanding of the Sun, where changing conditions can spread out into the solar system, affecting Earth and other worlds.

To perform these unprecedented investigations, the spacecraft and instruments will be protected from the Sun’s heat by a 4.5-inch-thick carbon-composite shield, which will need to withstand temperatures outside the spacecraft that reach nearly 2,500 F. This state-of-the-art heat shield will keep the four instrument suites designed to study magnetic fields, plasma and energetic particles, and image the solar wind at room temperature.

The spacecraft speed is so fast, at its closest approach it will be going at approximately 430,000 mph. That’s fast enough to get from Washington, D.C., to Tokyo in under a minute.

“Parker Solar Probe is, quite literally, the fastest, hottest — and, to me, coolest — mission under the Sun,” said project scientist Nicola Fox, of the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory. “This incredible spacecraft is going to reveal so much about our star and how it works that we’ve not been able to understand.”

Honoring a Science Legend

Eugene Parker, professor emeritus at the University of Chicago, visits the spacecraft that bears his name, NASA’s Parker Solar Probe, on Oct. 3, 2017. Engineers in the clean room at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland, where the probe was designed and built, point out the instruments that will collect data as the mission travels directly through the Sun’s atmosphere. Credits: NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

In May 2017, NASA renamed the spacecraft from the Solar Probe Plus to the Parker Solar Probe in honor of astrophysicist Eugene Parker. The announcement was made at a ceremony at the University of Chicago, where Parker serves as the S. Chandrasekhar Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics.

This was the first time NASA named a spacecraft for a living individual.

NASA missions are most often renamed after launch and certification. In this case, given Parker’s accomplishments within the field, and how closely aligned this mission is with his research, the decision was made to honor him prior to launch, in order to draw attention to his important contributions to heliophysics and space science.

In the 1950s, Parker proposed a number of concepts about how stars — including our Sun — give off energy. He called this cascade of energy the solar wind, and he described an entire complex system of plasmas, magnetic fields and energetic particles that make up this phenomenon. Parker also theorized an explanation for the superheated solar atmosphere, the corona, which is — contrary to what was expected by physics laws — hotter than the surface of the Sun itself. Many NASA missions have continued to focus on this complex space environment defined by our star.

Parker Solar Probe is part of NASA’s Living with a Star Program, or LWS, to explore aspects of the Sun-Earth system that directly affect life and society. LWS is managed by the NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, in Laurel, Maryland, manages the Parker Solar Probe mission for NASA. APL is designing and building the spacecraft and will also operate it.

Illustration of the Parker Solar Probe spacecraft approaching the Sun.
Credits: Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory


Sunspots becoming rarer as cycle heads toward minimum

Bob Zimmerman posts his latest report on the sunspot cycle: The Sun goes quiet! Sunspot update for November 2017 | Behind The Black  

The past month was the most inactive month for sunspots since the middle of 2009, when the last solar minimum was just ending and the Sun was beginning its ramp up to solar maximum.

The sun has a blank look today as well:


Check the HobbySpace Sun & Space Weather page  for daily images and data for solar and space weather conditions.

Here is a sampling of solar/space weather related Twitter feeds:


No spots but the Sun is stormy nonetheless

The sun has gone spotless for the past seven days: – Oct.15.2017.

Nevertheless, there has continued to be solar eruptions leading to brilliant aurora on earth:

NO SUNSPOTS, NO PROBLEM: A minor G1-class geomagnetic storm is underway on Oct. 15th. This marks the 5th consecutive day that polar geomagnetic storms have been observed–a remarkable string considering that there are NO SUNSPOTS on the face of the sun. It just goes to show that blank suns can indeed produce stormy space weather. Arctic sky watchers should remain alert for auroras as the solar wind continues to blow faster than 550 km/s. 

In September the number of sunspots went up a bit but the trend for the year shows a continued downturn towards a minimum in the cycle: Sunspot update for September 2017 | Behind The Black