Palaeomagnetic observations offer important insights into the origin of Earth’s interior, but a detailed reconstruction of the underlying dynamics is not feasible. A practical alternative is to construct a stochastic model for the time evolution of the dipole field.
Slow changes in the field are described by a deterministic (drift) term, whereas short-time fluctuations are represented by a random (noise) term. Estimates for the drift and noise terms can be recovered from a time series of variations in the axial dipole moment over the past 2 million years. The results are used to predict a number of statistical properties of the palaeomagnetic field, including the average rates of magnetic reversals and excursions.
Dr. Buffet will explain how a physical interpretation of the stochastic models suggests that reversals and excursions are part of a continuum of time variations in Earth’s magnetic field, arising from convective fluctuations in the core. Relatively modest changes the amplitude of convective fluctuations can produce large changes in reversal rates, including the well-known occurrence of superchrons lasting longer than 10 million years.
Gwynne Shotwell, president of SpaceX, gave a keynote talk at last week’s South Summit entrepreneurial business event in Madrid, Spain. She then participated in a panel discussion titled, Future of connectivity: What can we expect from Space Exploration 6.0.
Her talk starts at about 1hr 31min 15sec into this video. The panel begins at around 1hr 45min
The XTI Aircraft Company includes an aviation industry A-list group of founders and engineers who intend to develop a vertical take-off and landing aircraft called the Trifan 600. As seen below, the vehicle has three ducted fans to provide vertical lift. During horizontal flight the center fan is covered while the other two fans tilt and drive the vehicle forward at up to 400 mph (640 kmh).
Here is a video about the vehicle:
To guage interest in the project, they have opened an equity crowdfunding campaign at StartEngine Crowdfunding. This involves eventual purchase of shares in the company, not contributing money for a perk as with Kickstarter or Indiegogo projects.
A big advantage of an electric car is that you can top off the battery every night with a garage charger. Of course, that means you have to remember to plug it in every evening. Tesla Motors shows off a prototype robotic system to automatically connect a charger to a Tesla whenever it is parked in the garage: