Here’s the latest NASA Earth to Ground report on what has been happening aboard the International Space Station:
Here’s the latest NASA Earth to Ground report on what has been happening aboard the International Space Station:
The European Space Agency’s Rosetta probe was launched in March 2004 on an Ariane V rocket and on August 6th it will finally
rendezvous with Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and remain in close proximity to the icy nucleus as it plunges towards the warmer inner reaches of the Sun’s domain. At the same time, a small lander will be released onto the surface of this mysterious cosmic iceberg.
Here is a post from the Rosetta blog about how the comet’s structure is starting to come into focus:
This week’s images of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko reveal an extraordinarily irregular shape. We had hints of that in last week’s images and in the unscheduled previews that were seen a few days ago, and in that short time it has become clear that this is no ordinary comet. Like its name, it seems that comet 67P/C-G is in two parts.
What the spacecraft is actually seeing is the pixelated image shown [above], which was taken by Rosetta’s OSIRIS narrow angle camera on 14 July from a distance of 12 000 km.
A second image and a movie show the comet after the image has been processed. The technique used, called “sub-sampling by interpolation”, only acts to remove the pixelisation and make a smoother image, and it is important to note that the comet’s surface features won’t be as smooth as the processing implies. The surface texture has yet to be resolved simply because we are still too far away; any apparent brighter or darker regions may turn out to be false interpretations at this early stage.
But the movie, which uses a sequence of 36 interpolated images each separated by 20 minutes, certainly provides a truly stunning 360-degree preview of the overall complex shape of the comet. Regardless of surface texture, we can certainly see an irregular shaped world shining through. Indeed, some people have already likened the shape to a duck, with a distinct body and head.
Although less obvious in the ‘real’ image, the movie of interpolated images supports the presence of two definite components. One segment seems to be rather elongated, while the other appears more bulbous.
Dual objects like this – known as ‘contact binaries’ in comet and asteroid terminology – are not uncommon.
Indeed, comet 8P/Tuttle is thought to be such a contact binary; radio imaging by the ground-based Arecibo telescope in Puerto Rico in 2008 suggested that it comprises two sphere-like objects. Meanwhile, the bone-shaped comet 103P/Hartley 2, imaged during NASA’s EPOXI flyby in 2011, revealed a comet with two distinct halves separated by a smooth region. In addition, observations ofasteroid 25143 Itokawa by JAXA’s Hayabusa mission, combined with ground-based data, suggest an asteroid comprising two sections of highly contrasting densities.
Is Rosetta en-route to rendezvous with a similar breed of comet? The scientific rewards of studying such a comet would be high, as a number of possibilities exist as to how they form.
One popular theory is that such an object could arise when two comets – even two compositionally distinct comets – melded together under a low velocity collision during the Solar System’s formation billions of years ago, when small building blocks of rocky and icy debris coalesced to eventually create planets. Perhaps comet 67P/C-G will provide a unique record of the physical processes of accretion.
Or maybe it is the other way around – that is, a single comet could be tugged into a curious shape by the strong gravitational pull of a large object like Jupiter or the Sun; after all, comets are rubble piles with weak internal strength as directly witnessed in the fragmentation of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 and the subsequent impacts into Jupiter, 20 years ago this week. Perhaps the two parts of comet 67P/C-G will one day separate completely.
On the other hand, perhaps comet 67P/C-G may have once been a much rounder object that became highly asymmetric thanks to ice evaporation. This could have happened when the comet first entered the Solar System from the Kuiper Belt, or on subsequent orbits around the Sun.
One could also speculate that the striking dichotomy of the comet’s morphology is the result of a near catastrophic impact event that ripped out one side of the comet. Similarly, it is not unreasonable to think that a large outburst event may have weakened one side of the comet so much that it simply gave away, crumbling into space.
But, while the interpolated images are certainly brilliant, we need to be closer still to see a better three-dimensional view – not to mention to perform a spectroscopic analysis to determine the comet’s composition – in order to draw robust scientific conclusions about this exciting comet.
Rosetta Mission Manager Fred Jansen comments: “We currently see images that suggest a rather complex cometary shape, but there is still a lot that we need to learn before jumping to conclusions. Not only in terms of what this means for comet science in general, but also regarding our planning for science observations, and the operational aspects of the mission such as orbiting and landing.
“We will need to perform detailed analyses and modelling of the shape of the comet to determine how best we can fly around such a uniquely shaped body, taking into account flight control and astrodynamics, the science requirements of the mission, and the landing-related elements like landing site analysis and lander-to-orbiter visibility. But, with fewer than 10 000 km to go before the 6 August rendezvous, our open questions will soon be answered.”
I mentioned Ken Murphy in the previous posting about the Moon Day event this Saturday in Dallas that he is helping to organize. Ken was interviewed on the Space Show recently : Ken Murphy, Tuesday, 7-15-14 – Thespaceshow’s Blog
They talked about a number of topics, particularly his extensive compilation of space films with settings in the Earth-Moon system (i.e. cislunar):
Our goal is to provide a a cinematic and immersive experience that doesn’t compromise on gameplay. Project Tool is inspired by many works of science fiction, and aims to push the genre forward in a faithful but new way. We actively consult with scientists, astronauts, NASA and even some world recognized museums to make a universe that is futuristic, but plausible. When you look at classic Star Trek, you see how much modern technology is inspired by it, with cell phones and more recently, Google Glass being great examples. So in that sense, we want to show people what technology might look like in the future via our game. Ultimately, we want Project Tool to be smart sci-fi, that has awesome gameplay and a fully engrossing storyline.
Check out the trailer for the game:
And this video focuses on the graphics used in the game:
They are crowd-sourcing the funding for the game with the goal of releasing it at the end of December, 2015.
Sunday July 20th will be the 45th anniversary of the Apollo 11 Moon landing. Here is a video released by NASA today showing the complete lunar EVA with restored imagery:
Original Mission Video as aired in July 1969 depicting the Apollo 11 astronauts conducting several tasks during extravehicular activity (EVA) operations on the surface of the moon. The EVA lasted approximately 2.5 hours with all scientific activities being completed satisfactorily.
The Apollo 11 (EVA) began at 10:39:33 p.m. EDT on July 20, 1969 when Astronaut Neil Armstrong emerged from the spacecraft first. While descending, he released the Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly on the Lunar Module’s descent stage. A camera on this module provided live television coverage of man’s first step on the Moon.
On this, their one and only EVA, the astronauts had a great deal to do in a short time. During this first visit to the Moon, the astronauts remained within about 100 meters of the lunar module, collected about 47 pounds of samples, and deployed four experiments. After spending approximately 2 hours and 31 minutes on the surface, the astronauts ended the EVA at 1:11:13 a.m. EDT on July 21.
Ken Murphy, president of the Moon Society, informs me that the Frontiers of Flight Museum in Dallas, Texas will host the MOON DAY event this Saturday, July 19th: “Moon Day”, July 19, 2014 – the Biggest Annual Space Event in the DFW Metroplex! - NSSofNT.org
In cooperation with the National Space Society of North Texas, the Museum once again celebrates space exploration with MOON DAY, July 19, 2014. Come and experience a full day of family-oriented activities, demonstrations, and programs, marking the 45th anniversary of the first manned Moon landing (the actual landing was on July 20).
THE FIRST 250 CHILDREN to arrive will receive a free “Lunar Sample Bag” courtesy of Moonlite Printing & Graphics of Carrollton, full of magazines, stickers, activity books, posters and other materials of interest to space flight enthusiasts of all ages.
OVER 25 EXHIBITORS will offer fascinating displays and activities such as a close-up look at a meteorite, robotics demonstrations, space art, re-creating Moon craters, and a SAFE look directly at the sun through specially-equipped telescopes.
THREE PORTABLE PLANETARIUMS will be featured this year, all with different programs, to give visitors a glimpse of the night sky throughout the day!
FASCINATING PROGRAMS for all ages will include a look at life on Mars, “Cosmic Chemistry,” and the story of how Dr. James Carter of the University of Texas at Dallas developed simulated moon soil—presented by Dr. Carter himself!
BUILD AND LAUNCH A MODEL ROCKET!—Our younger visitors can attend a model rocket-building class courtesy of the Dallas Area Rocket Society from 1:30-3:15 p.m. A $25.00 fee includes all materials including a beginner’s level model rocket and engine, a one-year membership to the Dallas Area Rocket Society, and an opportunity to launch the model rocket at a supervised Dallas Area Rocket Society launch event. Students can enroll in advance or sign up at the door. Call (214) 350-4215 for details.
GIRL SCOUTS, BOY SCOUTS, AND CUB SCOUTS can meet various badge and pin requirements through participation in specific Moon Day activities. No registration is required, and the qualifying activities are presented throughout the entire day.
CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION (CPE) CREDITS can be earned by DISD teachers attending any one of several presentations throughout the day—get a head start on your 2014-2015 requirements!
P.S. If you are not living near Dallas, you might check to see if a museum in your area is hosting a Moon Day event of their own.
The sun seems to be taking a nap: Spaceweather.com – July.16.14
WHERE DID ALL THE SUNSPOTS GO? This week, solar activity has sharply declined. There are only two numbered sunpots on the Earth-facing side of the sun, and each is so small you might have trouble finding them. Click to enlarge this July 17th image from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory and see if you can locate AR2113 and AR2114:
In case you couldn’t find them, here they are.
Long-time readers absorbing this image might be reminded of 2008-2009, years when the sun plunged into the deepest solar minimum in a century. The resemblance, however, is only superficial. Researchers believe that, underneath the visible surface of the sun, the solar dynamo is still churning out knots of magnetism that will soon bob to the surface to make sunspots. Solar Max is not finished.
For the moment, though, it seems to have paused. Solar activity is very low, and NOAA forecasters put the daily odds of an X-class flare no more than 1%. Updates on Twitter @spaceweatherman.
Keep an eye on the sun via the HobbySpace Sun & Space Weather page.
Red Sox Foundation to Partner with CASIS and
International Space Station
Ring Raffle Promotion to Include Visit to NASA’s Johnson Space Center and
Tour of International Space Station Mission Control Facility
Boston, MA – July 16, 2014 – The Boston Red Sox Foundation today announced a truly out of this world collaborative partnership with the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS), the manager of the International Space Station (ISS) U.S. National Laboratory. As part of an initial Partnership with the Red Sox Foundation, CASIS will add its support of the ongoing World Series Ring Raffle by adding aonce-in-a-lifetime, VIP trip to NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. The winner and three guests will receive a private tour of ISS Mission Control and the Astronaut Training Facility, as well as four passes to Space Center Houston and an authentic CASIS Mission Patch that has orbited the Earth. Airfare and hotel accommodations are also included.
This prize package will be available to those who enter the promotional code “CASIS” upon ordering their raffle tickets. These tickets are just $2 each, with a minimum of five tickets purchased, and can be found by visiting www.redsox.com/ringraffle. All proceeds from the Ring Raffle will go toward the Red Sox Foundation’s ongoing commitment to youth in our communities.
The Red Sox Foundation and CASIS are also partnered on an endeavor to generate Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) opportunities for its younger fans.
“To be able to partner with CASIS and the ISS is really a thrill,” said Gena Borson, Executive Director of Special Events at the Red Sox Foundation. “And not just for this amazing offer, but so that we can look together at how we may further develop programs focusing on STEM education.”
“We are excited to support the Red Sox Foundation as its dedication to educating the youth in its community is not only commendable but synergistic with our mission of providing unique educational opportunities,” said Duane Ratliff, Chief Operating Officer of CASIS. “One of CASIS’s goals is to support research on the ISS targeted toward improving life and health on earth. In addition, we have the cherished responsibility to use the ISS as the ideal platform for teaching science, technology, engineering and math to the next generation of researchers and leaders.”
Cleon Daskalakis, President of Celebrity Marketing, Inc. and Cofounder of the Celebrities for Charity Foundation, the provider of the online charitable raffle program netRaffle.org, added, “We are excited to have brought CASIS and the Red Sox Foundation together to both provide this unique promotion opportunity for fans to explore Mission Control but also for the future opportunities of providing STEM education with sports as a backdrop. “
Curiosity zaps a rock with its laser and gets a brief flash:
Flashes appear on a baseball-size Martian rock in a series of images taken Saturday, July 12 by the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) camera on the arm of NASA’s Curiosity Mars Rover. The flashes occurred while the rover’s Chemistry and Camera (ChemCam) instrument fired multiple laser shots to investigate the rock’s composition.
ChemCam’s laser has zapped more than 600 rock and soil targets on Mars since Curiosity landed in the planet’s Gale Crater in August 2012.
“This is so exciting! The ChemCam laser has fired more than 150,000 times on Mars, but this is the first time we see the plasma plume that is created,” said ChemCam Deputy Principal Investigator Sylvestre Maurice, at the Research Institute in Astrophysics and Planetology, of France’s National Center for Scientific Research and the University of Toulouse, France. “Each time the laser hits a target, the plasma light is caught and analyzed by ChemCam’s spectrometers. What the new images add is confirmation that the size and shape of the spark are what we anticipated under Martian conditions.”
Preliminary analysis of the ChemCam spectra from this target rock, appropriately named “Nova,” indicates a composition rich in silicon, aluminum and sodium, beneath a dust layer poor in those elements. This is typical of rocks that Curiosity is encountering on its way toward Mount Sharp.
MAHLI Deputy Principal Investigator Aileen Yingst of the Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, Arizona, said, “One of the reasons we took these images is that they allow the ChemCam folks to compare the plume to those they imaged on Earth. Also, MAHLI has captured images of other activities of Curiosity, for documentation purposes, and this was an opportunity to document the laser in action.”
Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego, developed, built and operates MAHLI. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Los Alamos National Laboratory, in Los Alamos, New Mexico, developed ChemCam in partnership with scientists and engineers funded by the French national space agency (CNES), the University of Toulouse and France’s National Center for Scientific Research.
NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory Project is using Curiosity to assess ancient habitable environments and major changes in Martian environmental conditions. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, built the rover and manages the project for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington.
For more information about Curiosity, visit these sites:
You can follow the mission on Facebook at: www.facebook.com/marscuriosity
and on Twitter at: www.twitter.com/marscuriosity
I posted earlier that the reports that the ISEE-3 Reboot Project had given up on restarting the propulsion system were premature. Project member Dennis Wingo gives a detailed account of the crowd-sourced investigation into what is going on with the thrusters and into possible solutions to the failure to get substantial thrust from them: We Are Borg: Crowdsourced ISEE-3 Engineering and the Collective Mind of the Internet – Space College
There is a pretty good possibility now that we have pressure and or fuel in the tanks but that it is not getting to the propellant lines and out the thrusters. We are going to of course turn the +28 volts on this time! We will also open both valves on one of the fuel systems, the primary and redundant. We will also heat the tanks to see if we can see a rapid increase in temperature. If we see a rapid rise, that would indicate no fuel in the tanks (testing for all eventualities). There are several things we will do to test out and try propulsion to bleed all the gas out of the lines.
What we could see would be not much activity and then toward the end of the pulses from the thrusters we could see propellant flow, temperature increase, and thrust!
Cross your fingers. We will have a pass on July 16th at Arecibo, so we will soon find out what the outcome is.
The UKube-1 satellite, built by made by Clyde Space and the UK Space Agency, went to space last week on a Russian Soyuz rocket. It was the first Scottish satellite and one of the first satellites to have art etched on a side panel: L.A. gallery iam8bit creates first-ever satellite art, launching into space Tuesday – San Gabriel Valley Tribune.
I reported on the artwork project last year: Satellite going to space with pop-art whimsy – Space-for-All.
The art was created by Jon Gibson and Amanda White of iam8bit Productions in Los Angeles.
Here’s a brief video showing how the etchings would look to a space visitor:
The Indian organization SPATS (Space Technology Students’ Society) is
working towards a common goal of motivating space interest among the student community of India, which is emerging as one of the major forefronts in the field of space technology.
One of their programs is the NSSC (National Students’ Space Challenge) event, which will take place October 31 to November 2. The NSSC includes workshops, guest lectures, and several competitions.
One of the competitions is an Astrophotography contest: Amateurs get chance to showcase their skills in astrophotography – The Times of India.
Here is a video of the panel discussion yesterday about the search for life on planets orbiting other stars (see earlier posting):
NASA space-based observatories are making unprecedented new discoveries and revealing worlds never before seen. During a televised panel discussion of leading science and engineering experts at NASA Headquarters on Monday, July 14, a scientific and technological roadmap to lead to the discovery of potentially habitable worlds among the stars was addressed. The agency’s next step, the James Webb Space Telescope (Webb telescope), was featured as a new tool that will continue to help scientists rewrite scientific textbooks long after its scheduled launch in 2018.
Check out this cool new improved map of the geologic features of Mars;
The onslaught of up-close exploration in recent years has yielded a ton of information. The Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey,Mars Express and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter missions have pored over the planet’s surface with a bunch of different sensors that can detect everything from the types of minerals present on the surface, to the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere, to the structure of the shallow subsurface. These orbiters showed that much of the planet’s surface is older than scientists thought. The area formed more than 4 billion years ago (the darkest brown on the map) is three times as large. The new map also backs up the idea that Mars was geologically active until recently, and that liquid water once was present on the surface.
This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet’s surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters.
These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping.
In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze).
Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.
The Fermi paradox seems to be getting more attention these days:
1. Monday, July 14, 2014: 2-3:30 PM PDT (5-6:30 PM EDT, 4-5:30 PM CDT): We welcome JIM PLAXCO to discuss the ISS and other science platforms, the recent AAS ISS R&D conference, & the commercial space component of the space industry.
2. Tuesday, July 15, 2014, 7 PM PDT (10 PM EDT, 9 PM CDT): We welcome back KEN MURPHY who will discuss his recent Space Review articles on space & science fiction films.
3. Wednesday, July 16, 2014, 8:30-9:30 AM PDT (11:30 AM-12:30: PM EDT, 10:30-11:30 AM CDT): We welcome DR. JEFF PUSCHELL of Raytheon to the show to tell us about the upcoming AIAA Space 2014 Conference to be held the first week of August in San Diego, CA. Visit www.aiaa.org for more information. .
SPECIAL TIME 4. Friday, 18, 2014:, 8:30-10 AM PDT (11:30 AM-1 PM EDT, 10:30 AM-12 PM CDT). We welcome DR. RACHEL ARMSTRONG from the UK to talk with us about Project Persephone. Dr. Armstrong is the team lead for the project. For more information, visit http://www.icarusinterstellar.org/team/rachel-armstrong and http://www.icarusinterstellar.org/projects/project-persephone.
The Space Show is a project of the One Giant Leap Foundation.
Michael Clark describes SpaceX’s Falcon 9 v1.1 rocket:
This looks like an interesting discussion:
NASA Television will air a panel discussion of leading science and engineering experts on Monday, July 14, from 2 to 3:30 p.m. EDT, who will describe the scientific and technological roadmap that will lead to the discovery of potentially habitable worlds among the stars.
The public is invited to attend or view the event, which will take place in the Webb Auditorium at NASA Headquarters, 300 E Street SW in Washington.
Space and ground observatories are cataloging and characterizing hundreds and what is expected to eventually be thousands of potentially habitable worlds in our galaxy. NASA space-based observatories are making unprecedented new discoveries. The agency’s next step, the James Webb Space Telescope (Webb telescope), will continue to help scientists rewrite scientific textbooks after its scheduled launch in 2018.
NASA Administrator Charles Bolden will provide opening comments.
Panel participants include:
– Ellen Stofan, NASA’s chief scientist, NASA Headquarters, Washington
– John Grunsfeld, astronaut and associate administrator, NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington
– John Mather, Nobel Laureate and Senior Project Scientist for the Webb telescope at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland
– Sara Seager, MacArthur Fellow and Professor of Planetary Science and Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge
– Dave Gallagher, director for Astronomy and Physics, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California
– Matt Mountain, director of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore and Telescope Scientist for the Webb telescope
Questions can be asked during the event by attendees or via Twitter using the hashtag #AskNASA.
For NASA TV streaming video, schedules and downlink information, visit: www.nasa.gov/nasatv
For more information about NASA’s role in the search for life, visit: www.nasa.gov
It now appears that dry ice rather than salty water is making at lease some of the new gullies on Mars:
Repeated high-resolution observations made by NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) indicate the gullies on Mars’ surface are primarily formed by the seasonal freezing of carbon dioxide, not liquid water.
The first reports of formative gullies on Mars in 2000 generated excitement and headlines because they suggested the presence of liquid water on the Red Planet, the eroding action of which forms gullies here on Earth. Mars has water vapor and plenty of frozen water, but the presence of liquid water on the neighboring planet, a necessity for all known life, has not been confirmed. This latest report about gullies has been posted online by the journal Icarus.
This pair of images covers one of many sites on Mars where researchers
use the HiRISE camera on NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to study
changes in gullies on slopes. Changes such as the ones visible in deposits
near the lower end of this gully occur during winter and early spring
on Mars. Image Credit: NASA/JPL Full image and caption
“As recently as five years ago, I thought the gullies on Mars indicated activity of liquid water,” said lead author Colin Dundas of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Astrogeology Science Center in Flagstaff, Arizona. “We were able to get many more observations, and as we started to see more activity and pin down the timing of gully formation and change, we saw that the activity occurs in winter.”
Dundas and collaborators used the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on MRO to examine gullies at 356 sites on Mars, beginning in 2006. Thirty-eight of the sites showed active gully formation, such as new channel segments and increased deposits at the downhill end of some gullies.
Using dated before-and-after images, researchers determined the timing of this activity coincided with seasonal carbon dioxide frost and temperatures that would not have allowed for liquid water.
Frozen carbon dioxide, commonly called dry ice, does not exist naturally on Earth, but is plentiful on Mars. It has been linked to active processes on Mars such as carbon dioxide gas geysers and lines on sand dunes plowed by blocks of dry ice. One mechanism by which carbon dioxide frost might drive gully flows is by gas that is sublimating from the frost providing lubrication for dry material to flow. Another may be slides due to the accumulating weight of seasonal frost buildup on steep slopes.
The findings in this latest report suggest all of the fresh-appearing gullies seen on Mars can be attributed to processes currently underway, whereas earlier hypotheses suggested they formed thousands to millions of years ago when climate conditions were possibly conducive to liquid water on Mars.
Dundas’s co-authors on the new report are Serina Diniega of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California, and Alfred McEwen of the University of Arizona, Tucson.
“Much of the information we have about gully formation, and other active processes, comes from the longevity of MRO and other orbiters,” said Diniega. “This allows us to make repeated observation of sites to examine surface changes over time.”
Although the findings about gullies point to processes that do not involve liquid water, possible action by liquid water on Mars has been reported in the past year in other findings from the HiRISE team. Those observations were of a smaller type of surface flow feature.
An upcoming special issue of Icarus will include multiple reports about active processes on Mars, including smaller flows that are strong indications of the presence of liquid water on Mars today.
“I like that Mars can still surprise us,” Dundas said. “Martian gullies are fascinating features that allow us to investigate a process we just don’t see on Earth.”
HiRISE is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson. The instrument was built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. of Boulder, Colorado. JPL manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Project for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington.
For more information about HiRISE, visit: hirise.lpl.arizona.edu
Additional information about MRO is online at: www.nasa.gov/mro
For recent findings suggesting the presence of liquid water on Mars, visit: < strong>go.nasa.gov/1q1VRLS